All you need to know about Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). This rate is greater than 1.26 g / l (7.7 mmol / l) when dosing on an empty stomach or more than 2 g / l at any time of the day. In type 2 diabetes, (formerly fatty or non-insulin dependent diabetes), the secretion of insulin (a hormone secreted by the pancreas which allows sugar to enter the cells to give them energy) exists, but it is often minimal and not very active at the cell level (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is usually detected after 40 years of age. High blood pressure and high levels of cholesterol in the blood are often associated to this disease.

Complications of diabetes

The main complications of diabetes are:

- Disorders of small blood vessels of the kidney (nephropathy) can lead to chronic renal failure, of the eyes (retinopathy) with the risk of blindness, the nervous system (neuropathy) involving motor disturbances and sensory disturbances.

- Damage of the great vessels located at the heart, brain, members can cause heart attack, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (obstruction of the arteries by blood clots containing a portion of blood).


The risk of developing an infection is very high in people with diabetes.

Too high hyperglycemia can lead to comas with possible death.

Causes:

Type 2 diabetes can be caused by:


- Genetic abnormalities.

- Hormonal diseases.

- Pathologies of the pancreas.

- Taking certain medications.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

There is a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes: having a parent with diabetes, therefore, you have doubles the risk.

Other risk factors include:

- Physical inactivity.

- Obesity or significant weight gain.

- The existence of a history of gestational diabetes (diabetes occurring during pregnancy).

- A child born with a weight greater than 4 kg.

Symptoms

Type 2 diabetes is usually asymptomatic (without symptoms) and detected in blood laboratory tests of control.

However, when they do exist, the first symptoms are:

- Severe urges to urinate (polyuria), to eat (polyphagia) and to drink (polydipsia).

- Hypotension.

- Behavioral disorders.

- Tiredness.

- Nausea or even vomiting.

- Weight loss.

- Visual disturbances.

- Signs of bacterial and fungal infections (fungi).


Sometimes type 2 diabetes is discovered when serious complications associated with this disease arise:

Sometimes type 2 diabetes is discovered when serious complications associated with this disease arise:


- Hyperosmolar coma (major dehydration and very high blood sugar).

- Ketoacidosis (accumulation of acidic substances and sugar in the blood).

Medical consultation is essential in order to benefit from appropriate care quickly.

Prevention

There are preventive measures to avoid the occurrence of type 2 diabetes:


- Follow an adapted and balanced diet.

- Lose weight in case of overweight or obesity.

- Practice regular physical activity.

When diabetes is diagnosed, and in order to avoid the occurrence of complications, it is essential to:

- Have medical follow-up.

- Follow his treatment correctly.

- Regularly monitor his blood sugar (blood sugar level).

- Manage any infection quickly.

- Treat high blood pressure and lipid abnormalities (high cholesterol, etc.) that may be associated.

- Stop smoking.

Type 2 diabetes: what are the risk profiles?

Type 2 diabetes is a silent disease that continues to progress. Too much fat, too much tobacco, not enough sport: three criteria on which you can act.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Most often occurring in adulthood, it corresponds to an excess of sugar (hyperglycemia). The diagnosis is made when the fasting glucose exceeds twice 1.26 g / liter, or if a single dosage, not on an empty stomach, exceeds 2 g / liter. 

Two factors can explain the disease:

- On the one hand, insulin (which lowers blood sugar) does not work well (insulin resistance).

- On the other hand, the pancreas begins by making a lot of insulin, then runs out and does not secrete enough to regulate the metabolism.

The role of heredity in the onset of diabetes:

“If only one of your parents is diabetic, the probability of being diabetic is 40%. If both are sick, the risk rises to 60%. Certain habits must be adopted to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes:

 1. An annual blood sugar check is essential

The ideal age to start this annual check is the one at which your parent was diagnosed, minus ten years (at 45 if your mother was diagnosed at 55). If your blood sugar is between 1.10 g and 1.26 g / liter, you are entering a high-risk area. This state of prediabetes is completely asymptomatic. Be even more vigilant and follow the advice of your doctor. No preventive medication is authorized in France. the only lifestyle can limit the risk of getting sick.

2. Physical exercise for prevention

The most effective preventive measure against diabetes is physical activity. "By transforming fat into muscle, physical activity improves the body's sensitivity to insulin.

3. A balanced diet

At the same time, keep a diet low in calories and limit animal fats. As for sugar, just do not abuse it. Sweeteners like aspartame or stevia can replace it and do not affect blood sugar.

Unhealthy lifestyle implicated in type 2 diabetes

If heredity is very important in the development of type 2 diabetes, other factors exacerbate this family predisposition: 

1. You are overweight or have a metabolic syndrome

Try to lose weight. The overweight (BMI or body mass index greater than 25, or for example more than 92 kg for 1.75 m) exacerbates the phenomenon of insulin resistance, which leads straight to type 2 diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome also speeds up the process. It is characterized by too hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and a too-high triglyceride level. Control these factors, if necessary, with medication.

2. You smoke

Tobacco clogs the arteries, like diabetes. It increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. The solution: quit smoking.

Treatment

The initial treatment for type 2 diabetes is based on following an adapted diet and practicing regular physical activity. The therapeutic education of the patient is one of the pillars of this management.

If these measures are not enough to lower the blood sugar level, the doctor will prescribe oral and non-insulin medication. Since 2013, health recommendations recommend prescribing metformin alone as a first-line.

In a second step, if this treatment still does not achieve the glycemic target set, dual therapy, then triple therapy, may be considered on the basis of a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea.


At an advanced age, or when oral treatments are no longer sufficient, insulin becomes the standard treatment.

The education of people with diabetes is paramount. Consultations with a nutritionist are generally advised.

Imperative medical monitoring in diabetics

People with diabetes should regularly monitor their blood sugar levels regularly (several times a day or per week) using a suitable device.


Regular monitoring by a doctor is imperative: the consultation and the biological assessment are recommended 3 to 4 times a year. At a minimum, once a year, anyone with diabetes should benefit from:


- A foot exam (major risk of skin damage).

- A complete ophthalmological examination (fundus).

- A thorough cardiac examination (electrocardiogram, etc.).

- A urine test.

In addition to appropriate treatmentType 2 diabetes, herbal medicine can be useful.

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Jan 16, 2020

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