Economic Analysis of Public Policy

Public Policy

The broad spectrum of government legislation, regulation, court rulings and city regulations is better defined as public policy. The policy today influences many facets of our lives. The public policies of federal, state and local administrations all are included. Through endorsing them, the politicians and political parties, several individuals and associations seek to control public policies via the electoral process. It is a decent approach, but not the right path to having a meaningful impression.  

Politicians and groups are not constants. Due to circumstances, their views on matters can alter. They can be as comfortably voted out of government as it is. Changing public opinion is the best way to have a lasting impact on public policy. If you alter people's views, leaders and political groups will shift.

Public policy characteristics 

1) The government sought to help the people in a general direction, and public policies should be developed and carried out in that direction only. These policies clearly describe the government's agendas.

(2) The government's collective actions have resulted in public policy. It implies that it is a trend or course of activity for officials and citizens, rather than a spontaneous, individual judgment, in the familiar context of policy.

3) What the government wants or intends to do is public policy. It is the correlation of government units with a given administrative structure in the particular field of the political environment. It can take several forms, such as law, orders, judgments, executive actions, decisions, etc.

4) Public policy is productive because it reflects the government's consideration and includes its action towards a specific policy problem. The law and legitimacy behind it are approved. It implies a decision on one particular issue by the public officials.

Public policy types

- Substantive:

The primary emphasis of such initiatives resides in the health and prosperity of people, the substantive policy design comes from the programs such as the provision of schooling and job prospects, economic stabilization, enforcement of law and order, anti-pollution regulations, etc. These policies have broad areas of activity that influence the general well-being and development of the entire society. These are not specific or privileged segments of society. The main character of the constitutional problems, as well as the level of moral claims of the people, must be taken into consideration. 

- Administrative:

Regulatory policies apply to export enforcement, company legislation, health controls, public utilities, etc. This form of oversight is carried out on behalf of the government through autonomous organizations. State transport companies and private financial entities involved in administrative operations, respectively. Regulatory policies are known as policies adopted by the government regarding these services and organizations that provide these services. 

- Distributive:

Distributive strategies are designed for different social groups. It may be in the area of commodities loans, public welfare, etc. These cover all services for public service and health primarily. Other examples of distributive policies include adult education, food aid, social security and vaccination camps.  

- Redistributive:

Redistributive policy concerns the reorganization of policies to achieve fundamental social and economic changes. Some public goods and welfare services divide specific segments of society disproportionately. Through redistributive policies, these products and services are streamlined.  

- Capitalization:

Financial subventions given to the state and local governments by the government of the Union under the capitalization policy, shall also be awarded to central and state undertakings or, if necessary, to any other important sphere. Capitalization legislation varies, as no arrangements are provided for public health programs by way of these, from basic, legislative, distributive and redistributive strategies.

Public policy significance

The nature of state policy is ultimately dictated by the role the state performs. The state has been assigned a small part in the traditional capitalist society, and the state has been expected to function merely as a regulator and not its promoter for the social and economic sector. The state is seen as an active agent in the promotion and shaping of societies in its various activities with the emergence of the planned visions of development. Public policy expanded its scope from regulatory to development policy alone.

Expanding the scope has led to several further consequences, such as the creation and implementation of policies by many more government agencies and institutions. The Planning Commission and its associated agencies are established to set policies and opportunities that could determine the country's course. 

The first primary goal of our country's public policies was socioeconomic growth. In the area of industrial and agricultural development, a broad range of policies has been formulated. Many policies have been transformed into statutes. In the various plan documents, other directives were maintained. 

The policies were of two types: regulatory and promotional. Laws set out what the entrepreneurs could or could not do. That may be in the broader sector, such as what items can be generated by the state or how such things should only be sold through public bodies. The legislation also stipulated how government institutions themselves would provide products and services such as electricity, transport, etc. 

National independence still had challenges, and the international world was a source of danger and the nation needed to adopt adequate policies to protect it. Organizational problems have emerged. Regionalism has contributed to fissile patterns that will be reversed in the long term. Not just security measures but also decentralization initiatives would build greater national unity.

Conclusion 

In the context of socioeconomic development and preservation of national integrity. Such goals were complexes which demanded coherent policies and down into divisions and subsectors. There is a need for a strong core to cope with external challenges, and so on. However, it may contradict the decentralizing conceptPublic Policy, which provides a heterogeneous society with greater national cohesion. That is why it is necessary to determine the impact of public policy.


References:

https://www.hks.harvard.edu/courses/economic-analysis-public-policy

https://routledgetextbooks.com/textbooks/9781138796348/

https://lecture.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~zkanemoto/

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967 Words

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Aug 04, 2020

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