Role of bureaucracy in policy development


Etymologically speaking, the word “policies” comes from The Greek, Sanskrit, and Latin languages. The polis of Greek and Sanskrit pur (city-state) grew into Latin politia and ultimately into the Middle English police, which involved public relations behavior or governmental administration. For two other essential terms, governance and economy, the etymological roots of policy remain the same.


A policy is a blueprint that directs the government in achieving the required objectives. It should be identified as an essential public need and can be adequately measured for its actual achievement.

It includes a substantial public issue and the readiness of the State to cope with it in particular. It deals with a plan of action to produce a pessimistic or optimistic outcome and not cope with a particular problem or question.

In general, the policy is a product of comprehensive studies and intense study of evidence and knowledge available. So, it is considered to be a higher-level feature exclusive to the highest managerial tier.


A permanent and competent component of the national controlling structure is the bureaucracy or the civic service. It's generally defined as a permanent, competent non-political, or politically neutral civil service.

It regulates the government in compliance with the policy and laws of the political system executive. The efficiency and effectiveness of the government rely on the bureaucracy's quality and effectiveness.

Policies to serve the public:

Public policy is the government's entity or organizational activities, aims, and objectives, i.e., the state administration's decision authority. They may be seen in several ways, from legislation, judgments of the judiciary, executive orders, administrative regulations, etc. In general words, the policymaking modus operandi is in harmony with Herbert Simon's decision-making. The implementation of preference, intellect, and selection is also logical.

In comparison, administrators' involvement in the policy and policy review phases can be observed over time due to the rise in the number of people involved in policymaking and the policy formulation's unique existence.

Policymaking models:

Theoretic community: Contact between multiple community classes

Theoretic elite: representing elite ideals in policy formulation

Incremental: Time, expense, knowledge, and policy limits in real life

Institutional: based on institutional formulation and implementation

Reasonable: Maximization of policy efficacy

Theoretic game: Optimize profits across confrontation and competitiveness techniques

Systems: Decision implementation in terms of intervention systems.

These frameworks will be pursued following policy-makers' observations and practice throughout policymaking.

Policy Cycle stages:

1. Requests for federal intervention to recognize policy challenges

2. Setting or directing public bodies' resources on particular civic issues.

3. Creation by the policy planning agencies, the board, the legislative and advocacy organizations, their initiation and growth

4. Policy acceptance and legitimization by parliament, community groups, and political parties' political behavior

5. Economic execution by bureaucracies, campaign expenditures, and executive branch operations

6. Regulation formulation and effects evaluation and review

Policymaking role of Bureaucrats:

The creation of policies is a non-linear method. It is radical and inspired by several performers. Bureaucracy plays a vital function in articulating and forming strategy accordingly. They describe the policy goal, priorities, and challenges. Officials have a Code of Ethics on the grounds of the routine application. Informative, persuasive, and reflective is the role of red tape in policymaking. The top officials have a neighboring full monopoly on expertise resulting from their professional credentials and extensive public policy management experience.

They're the government's think tanks. The bureaucrats are essential:

- To enforce policies and directives, as prescribed by the government,

- To retain the entire administrative machinery within their official office.

- To provide advice on procedural laws, regulations, etc. to the political executive.

The broad expertise and understanding enable them to address clear perspectives on policy initiatives' financial and administrative complexities, the impact of the communities impacted, and various innovative approaches to cope with political problems.

Power of the Bureaucrats

The Constitution guides senior officials on policy formation. The secretaries suggest to the ministers that they take action within current regulations or policies. These assessments explain and finalize the framework of policy in new and unique cases.

They are interested in the planning of analytical information on the implementation of current policies by ministers.

The consistency of the bureaucrat's policy advising role depends on how often it applies to the government policy of the day, the concerns of competing parties, and society's needs. By remaining in the administrative organization, the bureaucrats' position is further strengthened as opposed to the frequent ministerial rotation.

A minister in a department invests an overall period that is much less than a bureaucrat’s average. Bureaucrats are typically assigned to a civil service position. This allows them to obtain comprehensive expertise in a given public domain.

Bureaucracy is a social tool that may act as a conduit between the statutory purpose and its realization. Political execution is likely to be influenced by a partnership between politicians (legislators or ministers) and policy-makers (bureaucrats and government and Non-governmental institutions).

Through their operations, executives have a greater or lesser degree of intimate interaction with the electorate in the structures expressly built for political execution; for example, State Offices, courts, and quasi-autonomous agencies.

The bureaucrats are known as the government agent for socially benefitting from laws by enforcing different enforced measures from time to time by the governing departments.

The bureaucrats play a twofold role in the execution of policy and programs' 'output' functions and 'input' functions, which not only affect policymaking but also influence public attitudes to the government.


The bureaucracy displays the policy priorities to the public and persuades them to obey the policies. The government aims to get closer to the people, seeking to please the people through effective policies. Due to the interface between residents and the administration, the officials have valuable chances to affect public policy enforcement. Although the execution of policies is a dynamic operationBureaucracy, bureaucrats must take multiple political decisions to serve the people.



965 Words


Oct 28, 2020


2 Pages

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