Trade policy is an interdisciplinary topic that has attracted significant attention from economists, political scientists, scholars in international relations, and sociologists. They are trying to understand the roots, existence, and outcomes of trade policies. Its conceptualization has evolved according to intellectual trends in many of its fostering domains. With the emergence of neo-institutionalism and the international political economy, they have become the essential subfields that lead to enriching foreign policy theories.
Empirically, the basic concept of trade policy has also relied on the past global economy. Thus, the shifting complexity and greater importance of foreign trade over the past 50 years has revived debate concerning trade policy's cultural, social, and environmental implications, and, more generally, regarding the emerging market-state partnership under the new constraints of globalization.
Contemporary trade strategy priorities tend to be:
1. To protect and reinforce the free world trade economy.
2. Winning rising overseas markets.
3. To achieve better living conditions through foreign trade and commerce for native people.
4. Earn enough foreign exchange to fulfill international obligations.
5. Providing fair protections against the business instability that might arise from unexpected, rapid rises in stocks of such products brought into the country.
1. More straightforward and consistent processes may minimize transaction costs. Unbiased and standardized procedural boundary criteria, streamlined clearance systems, harmonization of procedural specifications, elimination and streamlining of unduly burdensome protocols, implementation of globally negotiated norms and regulatory coordination are other essential factors in the modern trade.
2. Another concern is planning, implementing, and enforcing requirements, as well as inspection and approval protocols for manufactured goods. Besides customs procedures and technological legislation, higher trade requires more reliable infrastructure for air, land, and sea transport – especially port logistics.
3. Compliance with countless technological legislation affecting different authorities is a way of life for exporters in all countries. When the law is not applied correctly, it will establish needless obstacles to exchange and investment, with potentially significant transaction costs. Such expenses come from the requirement to update international legislation or employ legal and professional professionals as advisors, and any improvements in manufacturing processes or facilities to conform to the law. These prices, even in some instances requiring illegal payments, not only deter companies from selling or developing abroad but also influence local firms.
4. Customs and border processes should be planned and enforced to maintain continuity, predictability, efficiency, and clarity to reduce unnecessary burdens on the movement of products, services, and business people. It may include steps to remove obsolete or redundant criteria, such as requiring details already supplied to individual government departments or readily accessible elsewhere, modifying internal regulatory standards. The annual assessments or built-in sunset provisions to take account of evolving circumstances, technology, and markets.
Governments aiming to increase international trade productivity should:
- Analyze current performance
- Measure against international best practices
- Define key capacity-building areas
- Recommend implementing international standards where necessary
A primary policy goal of the governments is to ensure that technological rules and specifications and compliance testing processes do not establish needless obstacles to foreign trade. Avoid procedures that would offer undue benefit to domestic products and allows countries to accept each other's methods for determining whether a commodity conforms to technological regulations and requirements, thus promoting the implementation of international standards. It also lays out a Code of Good Conduct for all governments and non-governmental or corporate organizations to plan to implement and enforce mutual criteria. It also offers strategic support to developed nations.
The period to unlock imported and exported products have been the key metric for assessing the efficacy of customs administration in the host nation. A World Customs Organization (WCO) Time Release Report offers advice to customs officials about how to better implement this internal evaluation process.
Faster clearance processes enable companies to prepare for moving products through borders to fulfill quick manufacturing deadlines and just-in-time deliveries.
Social benchmarking helps recognize and enforce standard practices under the same authority. For example, it might compare how various customs offices operate. Benchmarking also requires performance metrics that can meet opposition among customs officials, but may often be qualitative by contrasting working methods rather than results.
Company polls or country reports by foreign or other organizations may often include an impartial evaluation of a country's customs procedures.
Generally, domestic benchmarking is a first step before a host country accepts global benchmarking. International benchmarking is often a joint mechanism, including customs officials of many nations, not only testing efficiency.
To support countries in performing external customs benchmarking, the WCO developed the Customs Global Benchmarking Guide, which helps governments enhance their quality and efficacy by contrasting policies or processes with comparable ones internationally. It depends on cooperation between customs officials exchanging process knowledge and initiatives to promote new activities and enhance efficiency.
The need for capacity-building in this region is now widely understood by both developed and developing nations. Considerations include the potential for intergovernmental collaboration, the assistance offered in this field by foreign organizations, and how the private sector may contribute to the process.
An International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Policy Statement on Capacity Building to Strengthen Trade Facilitation tackles concerns such as teamwork, management efficiency, shared values, trust-building, and private sector capacity building contributions.
Overview results of a private-sector report on development under a Europe-Asia Trade Facilitation Action Plan are attached, while another provides ICC guidelines for a WTO Trade Facilitation Deal.
The 2006 updated Kyoto Convention calls for modern technology and a business-friendly solution to international trade, urging the private sector to collaborate with customs administrations. Customs agencies are dedicated to enhancing efficiency and predictability, utilizing risk reduction strategies, working with other local entities and the business community, and implementing acceptable international standards.
Export policies decide the market size for company production and thereby significantly affect both international and domestic expenditure. Over time, trade policies are gradually transforming the investment climate. Changes in technology, the liberalization of third-country policy towards trade and investment, and the organization of global supply chains within multinational enterprises (MNEs) have all helped to render trade policies in domestic and developing countries a key ingredient in attracting both international and domestic investment.
May 01, 2020